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[ Disclaimer: The opinions and views expressed on this site are my personal views, not those of Neda Communications, Inc. or the Free Protocols Foundation or any organization with which I am associated. ]

I have been involved with the evolution of the Internet for a very long time, and consider myself a student of the medium.

And this website is part of that experiment. And it is a perpetual work in progress. Not everything on this site is in final form. Please drop me a note with your thoughts about my writings, errors you may notice or help with the half baked stuff.

By profession, I am an engineer. My Professional Biography and Resume describe my professional background. Here I will say a bit more about myself, and provide a List of Publications, a small public photo gallery, a restricted genealogy, plus an explanation of autonomy and privacy aspects of the tools that I have chosen to build this website with.

I went to high school at Andisheh «اندیشه» (Don Bosco) in Tehran. In 1978, I took Iran’s national university entrance exams (concours) and ranked 290th out of about 400,000 participants that year. But I decided to go to the US to attend Seattle University, and graduated with a Bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering in 1981. I then continued with graduate school at the University of Washington. I finished my Master’s thesis in 1982 and dropped out of the Ph.D. program in 1983.

Here are a few pictures of my Andisheh, Seattle University and University of Washington days.

Between 1983 and 1991 I worked for 9 different companies, large and small. Then I decided to start my own company. In 1991 I founded Neda Communications, Inc., and have been running that company ever since.

In the 1990s, with Neda Communications, my primary focus was revenue generation. Within 5 years I grew a one-man consulting shop to 12 employees and annual revenues of over $1.2 million.

Between 2000 and 2018, my focus shifted from revenue generation to philosophy, societal and social analysis and building of autonomy and privacy oriented internet services. The direction that current internet services are headed is wrong. This mistake should be understood and we should try to correct it. I have now completed the general contours of the following key concepts and constructs.

Since 2018, my focus shifted to propagating ByStar and making the understandings of Poly-Existentials and Libre-Halaal widespread. I have been structuring my revenue generation activities around the ByStar Business Plan as an economic context for propagation of By*.

Some of what drives me are my responsibilities. As a software and Internet engineer, I have certain responsibilities to my profession and my profession has certain responsibilities to society and humanity. Much of my activities have been influenced by these.

Activities and Accomplishments

1  Overview

The work and results enumerated below are not just my work. Many have been involved and many have assisted. I consider it reasonable for these to be labeled “My Activities and Accomplishments”, as I either played a clear leadership role, was the origin and driver of the concepts, financed the work or did most of the work. Where appropriate in each case, I elaborate on my role.

I am against limiting my work with restrictive copyright and patents. The results of my activities become public resources, available to all. Nearly all of my software and all of my public writing has been copyleft and libre.

2  Tactical Professional Activities

2.1  Internet Email

I was commissioned by the Electronic Mail Association (EMA) in 1991 to write two papers about Internet email and email attachments. At the time email was a novelty and many large corporations and the US government were on the X.400 bandwagon. My position then was that the dynamics that were driving usage of email, would converge on Internet email. In PLPC-120022, I subtly made the case for Internet email and away from X.400. A sister white paper, PLPC-120023, deals with problems and risks associated with email attachments. Many of my recommendations, published in 1993, remain valid – more than 20 years later.

2.2  Architecture of Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD)

From 1992 to 1995 I played a key role in the formation and direction of the Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) industry. I led the technical network architecture design for the CDPD specifications, and was also directly involved in many aspects of the planning, development and deployment of the CDPD network services.

2.3  Internetwork Mobility – The CDPD Book

In 1996, I co-authored a book titled: “Internetwork Mobility – The CDPD Approach”

The book was first published by Prentice-Hall in 1996 (ISBN 0-13-209693-5). In 2001, I requested and was granted reversion of publishing rights by Pearson Education, Inc. (formerly known as Prentice-Hall). I then web published the entire 300-page book as

2.4  RFC-2188 – Efficient Short Remote Operations (ESRO)

Around 1997, when AT&T Wireless abandoned pACT, on my own dime I took the orphaned protocols and published them as Internet RFCs.

The lower layer of Libre Texting protocols is titled: “AT&T/Neda’s Efficient Short Remote Operations (ESRO)” and was published as RFC-2188. For its maintenance, was created.

The process of publication of RFC-2188 involved a complaint against The IESG and the RFC-Editor and my rejection of the IESG’s invitation to put that RFC on standards track. Towards making the RFC publication more transparent, I published the full email records related to this RFC publication. Free Declaration for the ESRO protocol were made at the Free Protocols Foundation.

2.5  RFC-2524 – Efficient Mail Submission and Delivery (EMSD)

In 1999, I published the second layer of Libre Texting protocols as RFC-2524 titled: “Neda’s Efficient Mail Submission and Delivery (EMSD). For its maintenance, was created. I also web published the full email records related to this RFC publication.

Patent Free Declaration for the EMSD protocol were made at the Free Protocols Foundation.

2.6  The Wap Trap – An Expose of the Wireless Application Protocol

In 2000, we provided a detailed criticism of a set of specifications called the Wireless Application Protocol, or WAP. In:

The WAP Trap
An Expose of the Wireless Application Protocol

we warned that WAP is booby-trapped with patents and that WAP is entirely unfit to play the role of wireless industry standard.

That essay was later translated into French as “Le WAP a la trappe – Un expose sur le Wireless Application Protocol”.

There was a fair amount of press coverage surrounding The Wap Trap, which included IEEE, Open Enterprise Trends and Interactive Week,

2.7  Libre Texting

In early 2000s I packaged the entire free software for implementations of EMSD and ESRO and created a framework that we described in:

Libre Texting
A Reshaping of the Medium

My goal was to increase privacy and autonomy of the texting medium based on the end-to-end model.

2.8  Persian Input Methods – For Emacs And More Broadly Speaking

I have been using Emacs since 1986. When support for bidirectional (bidi) text was included in Emacs 24 in 2011, I jumped in and added two input methods and Persian language support to Emacs. These are now part of Emacs. Complete documentation for these input methods is available on-line at:

Persian Input Methods – For Emacs And More Broadly Speaking
شیوه‌هایِ درج به فارسی‌


I built web sites in 2011 to focus on implementation and deployment of “The Libre-Halaal ByStar Digital Ecosystem” in the context of writing, publishing, communicating and processing in Persian and in Arabic.

3  Strategic Professional Activities

Strategically, as an engineer, I have very lofty plans. Some say it is insane.

I want to create a complete parallel Libre Digital Ecosystem to stand against and in contrast to the existing Proprietary Digital Ecosystem.

By “Digital Ecosystem”, I mean the whole thing. Software, internet application services, content publication and generation facilities and social and societal frameworks. Such an effort must be very multi-disciplinary and include, engineering, moral, societal, social, economic and business dimensions.

The umbrella title I have chosen for this work is:

The Libre-Halaal ByStar Digital Ecosystem
A Unified and Non-Proprietary Model For Autonomous Internet Services
A Moral Alternative To The Proprietary American Digital Ecosystem

Much consideration has gone into the choice of every word that is in that title.

Preservation of ByStar user’s autonomy, privacy and freedom are the primary factors driving design of ByStar Services. The health of society is our goal.

Such a large undertaking by such a small group should normally amount to not much more than pipe dreams.

There are several reasons why I believe widespread usage of what we are building is viable and probable.

  • First ByStar ideology is in harmony with nature. We understand the enormous, seismic force that accompanies halaal manner-of-existence of software and halaal manner-of-existence of Internet services (as expressed in the Libre-Halaal label). Manifestations of this force include the Free Software Movement and Linux. But there is far more to come.
  • Second, there is a need. Many are starting to recognize that things like Facebook are very wrong. Healthy alternatives are craved for.
  • Third, we have already built the needed framework and starting points.

3.1  Roadmap

The big ByStar picture is shown in Figure 1. Each of the layers in this figure represents either a conceptual definition (shown in blue), or an actual software/service implementation (shown in orange). Each layer builds on the layers beneath.

The Libre-Halaal ByStar Digital Ecosystem
A Unified and Non-Proprietary Model For Autonomous Internet Services
A Moral Alterantive To The Proprietary Digital Ecosystem    PLPC-180016
Neda's ByStar Open Business Plan       (
An Inversion to the Proprietary Internet Services Model    PLPC-180014
Blee and BxGnome    PLPC-180004
ByStar Software-Service Continuum Based Convivial User Environments   
The ByStar Applied Model       (
Of Federations of Autonomous Libre-Halaal Services    PLPC-180015
Libre-Halaal Services       (
Defining Halaal Manner-Of-Existence Internet Services    PLPC-180045
A non-proprietary model for delivery of Internet services   
Libre-Halaal Software       (
Defining Halaal Manner-Of-Existence Of Software       PLPC-180044
The Nature of Poly-Existentials:
Basis for Abolishment of The Western Intellectual Property Rights Regime    PLPC-120033
Introducing Halaal and Haraam into Globish
Based on Moral Philosophy of Abstract Halaal    PLPC-120039

Figure 1: Reading Roadmap For The Libre-Halaal ByStar Digital Ecosystem

The layers in Figure 1 are color coded. Each of the layers are either:

A Conceptual Layer.
Representing concepts. Layers 1,2,3,4,7 and 8 are in Green, Blue and Yellow.
A Tangible Layer.
Representing software/service implementations. Layers 5 and 6 are in Orange and Brown.

The tangible layers are bound by the conceptual layers underneath them and receive legitimacy from those concepts.

The conceptual layers are validated by the tangible layers.

The green layers (1 and 2) at the bottom are philosophical, moral and societal. Their scope is wider than the moral digital ecosystem that we are after. Generally speaking, these are not the domain of engineers. They are the domain of ethicists, philosophers and sociologists.

The blue layers (3, 4 and 8) are philosophical, moral, societal, social and engineering aspects of digital ecosystems that require direct involvement of engineers and the engineering profession. The yellow layer (7) addresses economics and business dimensions of ByStar.

The orange/brown layers (5 and 6) are engineering constructs. They are in-use software and in-use internet application services.

The gigantic picture we have drawn in Figure 1 is a blueprint. It represents a complete framework for collaborative work towards an alternative to the current proprietary digital ecosystem. By aligning ourselves with the natural forces and dynamics of poly-existentials, and by means of large-scale unrestricted collaboration, we can achieve this.

3.2  Foundation and Infrastructure

I see my primary role as one of guardianship of the goals and direction and facilitation of collaboration and growth. So, very early on I formed the following structures and foundations.

3.2.1  The Free Protocols Foundation – non-profit, non-proprietary

In 2000, I formed the Free Protocols Foundation, with the mission to maintain the integrity of public protocols, software and Internet services.

3.2.2  Neda Communications, Inc. – for-profit, non-proprietary

In 1991, I formed the Neda Communications, Inc.. Neda is a consulting firm specializing in Internet and Linux. Neda engineers have developed ByStar Libre Services. The entire ByStar software is GPLed (Affero v3). Neda plans to profit from widespread usage of The Libre-Halaal ByStar Digital Ecosystem in a variety of ways.


Around 2004, we built our own data center. It is distinct and different from other data centers in that is built purely on Libre-Halaal Software. At this time most ByStar Services are hosted at Libre Center.

3.3  Introducing Halaal and Haraam into Globish

Our focus as engineers, is to build the right thing.

We introduce the sensitive and potent word “Halaal.” We define this in the document titled:

Introducing Halaal and Haraam into Globish
Based on Moral Philosophy of Abstract Halaal
معرفیِ حلال و حرام به بقیه‌یِ دنیا

We precisely define what we mean by “Halaal” and “Haraam” and the explicit context and scope of the “Libre-Halaal” label. We use the word Halaal carefully and consistently to emphasize that our work is anchored in morality.

Briefly, philosophical halaal is “manifestation” of “moral sensibilities” relevant to a specific topic where “the set of actions” map to “right.” And, philosophical haraam is “manifestation” of “moral sensibilities” relevant to a specific topic where “the set of actions” map to “wrong.”

3.3.1  The Libre-Halaal Label

In the “Libre-Halaal” label, Libre indicates that:

  1. The scope of consideration of Halaal is manner-of-existence of poly-existentials.
  2. We reject the Western IPR regime. That the natural right to copy and the natural right to apply knowledge are the basis of our ideology.

Halaal indicates that:

  1. We are rooted in philosophy and morality — Not just economics.
  2. For each form of poly-existential, the manner-of-existence that permit Professions to safeguard society and humanity are the Halaal manner-of-existence for that poly-existential.

3.4  Nature Of Poly-Existentials

Central to our approach is full rejection of the Western so-called Intellectual Property Rights regime of copyright and patents.

We present our rationale for this conclusion in:

The Nature of Poly-Existentials:
Basis for Abolishment of The Western Intellectual Property Rights Regime

In that paper we analyze and discredit the Western Intellectual Property Rights regime based on the inherent nature of what it seeks to control and restrict – poly-existentials: all that can be learned and remembered and all that is digital.

The Western intellectual property rights regime is in conflict with nature, it does not serve the ideal intended purpose of societal regulations, i.e. to balance rights equitably among conflicting constituencies. On the contrary, it has the effect of enriching a minority of powerful vested interests, to the very great detriment of society at large. The detrimental effects include the obstruction of engineering creativity, a distortion of the competitive business environment, and denial of the benefits thereof to the public.

3.5  Libre-Halaal Software – Halaal Manner-Of-Existence Of Software

Next we focus on the correct manner-of-existence of software.

Our definitions for Halaal manner-of-existence of software and Internet service are concrete and precise. These definitions are similar to the “Free Software” and “Open Source” definitions but are distinct. As engineers, our legitimacy for addressing this topic is our responsibility to the engineering profession and the engineering profession’s responsibility to society.

We have created the site for further cultivation of the concept of Libre-Halaal Software.

Next we focus on the correct manner-of-existence of software and the correct manner-of-existence of Internet Application Services. That we have done with:

Defining Halaal Manner-Of-Existence Of Software
And Defining Halaal Internet Services

3.6  Libre-Halaal Services – Halaal Manner-Of-Existence Of Internet Services

We then introduce the concept of “Libre-Halaal Services” and describe the model for guaranteeing internal transparency of Internet application services in a collaborative environment.

In the document titled:

Libre-Halaal Services:
Defining Halaal Manner-Of-Existence Of Internet Application Services
A non-proprietary model for delivery of Internet services

We have formulated a radically new, non-proprietary model for delivery of Internet services.

Libre Services are an extension of the principles of Libre-Halaal software into the Internet services domain. They are Internet services that can be freely copied and reused by anyone. The Libre Services model exists in relation to the proprietary Internet services model of Apple, MSN, Yahoo and Google, in an analogous way to how GNU/Linux exists in relation to Microsoft Windows.

We have created the site for further cultivation of the concept of Libre-Halaal Services.

3.7  ByStar Applied Model Of Federations of Autonomous Libre-Halaal Services

The Libre-Halaal model is not just theory. We have built a set of real, working, in-use Libre Services. We call these the By* Federation of Autonomous Libre Services. By* (pronounced “by-star”) is a unified services model, unifying and making consistent a large number of services that currently exist in functional isolation. It is a coherent, integrated family of services, providing the user with a comprehensive, all-encompassing Internet experience.

In the document titled:

The ByStar Applied Model
Of Federations of Autonomous Libre-Halaal Services

We provide an overview of the model and design of ByStar Federation of Autonomous Services.

The By* services are based on 100% Libre-Halaal software and patent-free protocols, and are thus completely transparent and reproducible by anyone. They are a communal public resource, not owned by anyone, freely available for use by society at large. Their widespread deployment and usage is in the direct interests of the general public welfare.

3.8  ByStar Convivial User Environments – Blee and BxGnome

ByStar services can be accessed in a variety of ways. In addition to the traditional browser based model, ByStar provides for rich and deep Software-Service integration.

Initially we are focusing on two convivial, User Environments for ByStar.

Blee (ByStar Libre Emacs Environment) is a layer above Emacs that integrates ByStar platform (Debian GNU/Linux) capabilities into Emacs and provides for integration with ByStar Services.

An overview of this User Environment is provided in:

Blee and BxGnome:
ByStar Software-Service Continuum Based Convivial User Environments

The deep integration between Libre-Halaal Software and Libre-Halaal Internet Services creates a Libre-Halaal Software-Service continuum, far superior in capability to any Proprietary/Haraam Software/Service combination.

3.9  Layer 7: ByStar Economics – Neda’s ByStar Open Business Plan

Layer 7 is an economics and business conceptual layer, presented in yellow in Figure 1. It is in the form of an in use open business plan.

The economic and business consequences of Libre-Halaal software and services are a fundamental shift of business operations from the for-profit, proprietary quadrant into the for-profit, non-proprietary quadrant.

In the document titled:

The For-Profit and Non-Proprietary Quadrant

We provide more details on this topic.

The halaal manner-of-existence of software creates a powerful generative development model for halaal internet services. This generative model is absent from proprietary/haraam internet services. Thus halaal internet services have a major advantage and can compete directly with proprietary/haraam Internet Services in terms of development.

The basic recurring revenue models for halaal internet service providers are essentially the same as for haraam internet Service providers. Thus in terms of revenue generation, halaal and haraam services are on an equal footing.

As part of our responsibility to create a viable implementation construct we have fully analyzed the business dimension, and we have formulated the business model in the form of an Open Business Plan, titled:

The Libre-Halaal ByStar Open Business Plan
An Inversion to the Proprietary Internet Services Model
Neda Communication Inc.’s Open Business Plan

ByStar open business plan is available in 3 forms; the Condensed Summary (about 12 pages), the Executive Summary (about 15 additional pages) and the full plan (about 85 pages).

3.10  The Libre-Halaal ByStar Digital Ecosystem

The totality of halaal software, halaal Internet services, content generation and content publication facilities and societal frameworks that we described, forms the “The Libre-Halaal ByStar Digital Ecosystem”.

The description of the overarching model and structure of ByStar digital ecosystem is presented in:

The Libre-Halaal ByStar Digital Ecosystem
A Unified and Non-Proprietary Model For Autonomous Internet Services
A Moral Alternative To The Proprietary American Digital Ecosystem

4  My Invitation To You

The website you are looking at is an Autonomous Libre-Halaal Service. It is based completely and exclusively on patent-free protocols and halaal software. The By* services provide users with comprehensive computing and communications capabilities, while preserving critically important civil liberties such as privacy, autonomy, freedom of information, and freedom of speech. I invite you to try ByName out for yourself, and join the Libre-Halaal ByStar Libre Services community.



Document Actions
Libre/Halaal Internet Services Provided At LibreCenter By Neda

Member of By* Federation Of Autonomous Libre Services

This web site has been created based exclusively on the use of Halaal Software and Halaal Internet Application Services. It is part of the By* Federation of Autonomous Libre Services which in turn are part of the Halaal/Libre By* Digitial Ecosystem which incorporate the following software components: